Alloy Casting: Making The Best Choice

Table below features a few of the more popular casting alloys we pour for customers out of our 250+ total.
  • Alloy Table 2
  • Alloy Table 3
  • Alloy Table 4
Martensitic Stainless Steels (Hardenable)Austentic Stainless Steels (Non-Hardenable)Precipitation Hardening Stainless SteelDuplex Stainless Steels
Representative AlloysCA15, CA6NMCF8, CF8M, CN7MCB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2ILLIUM® P, ILLIUM® PD, CD4MCu, CD3MN (2205)
ApplicationsFor good wear and corrosionMost widely used corrosion resistant Alloys; useful at temperatures from cryogenic to 1000 F (500 C), depending on the gradeFor high-strength requirements (to 175 KSI); a superior combination of strength, toughness and weldability with moderately good corrosion resistanceWhere higher strength is advantageous; resisting erosion and corrosion
LimitationsCA15 is prone to cracking in heavy sections; special procedures improve stress corrosion cracking resistanceSpecial grades available for applications requiring higher strength, low magnetic permeability, etc.Should be used in an aged conditionSome grades difficult to produce in heavy sections
Typical UsesAerospace, gas turbines, marine, petro-chemical, pulp and paper, food processingChemical processing, marine, power plant, pulp and paper, fertilizer, food and dairyStructural parts requiring at least moderate corrosion resistancePump parts, mixers
MachinabilityFair to good, based on grade & conditionsFairGood when in condition A (solutioned)Good
WeldabilityRequires post-weld stress reliefGenerally very good; fully austenitic grades may require special proceduresShould be welded in soft condition, then re-solutioned and re-agedGood to fair. Post-weld heat treatment required
Corrosion ResistanceGood in mildly corrosive environments; good erosion resistance, some grades have very good resistance to cavitationsThough some grades are used as-cast, heat treatment maximizes corrosion resistanceModerate to goodSubject to stress corrosion cracking in some media
Nickel Based AlloysCobalt Based AlloysHeat Resistant Stainless SteelsCarbon and Low Alloy Steels
Representative AlloysMonel®, Inconel®, Hastelloy®, ILLIUM® G, ILLIUM® 98ILLIUM® 6, ILLIUM® 21, (STELLITE®)HK40, HT8620, 4130, WCB, LC3, C5
ApplicationsWhere maintenance or product purity is important. Well-suited to high temperature conditionsHot or corrosive atmosphere where lubrication is difficult; for resistance to wear, galling, impact, and thermal shockFor high strength and corrosion resistance at temperatures above 1200 FMachine parts, structural components
LimitationsDifficult for the inexperienced foundry to produceLow ductility in many gradesExposure to service conditions may degrade room temperature ductility and weldability; cannot be hardenedLow corrosion resistance.
Typical UsesFluid handling systems, chemical processing, fresh and salt water applicationsBushings, sleeves, knives, pump components, valvesPetrochemical refining, heat treatment furnacesKnives, cutter blades, die casting dies
MachinabilityGood to fair. Lower feeds and speeds generallyFairFair. Slow feeds and deep cuts recommendedFair to good, depending on grade and condition
WeldabilityGenerally goodGood to poor, depending on gradeShielded metal arc welding (SMAW) produces good resultsFair to excellent, depending on grade and condition.
Corrosion ResistanceGood resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Some grades especially resistant to attack from hydrochloric acid; others to hydrofluoric acidExcellentSuperior resistance to air, combustion gases, flue gases (reducing and oxidizing) and steamLow
SpecialitySuper AusteniticCopper BasedNi-ResistDuctile Ni-Resist
Representative AlloysILLIUM 8CN3MN, CK3MCuNC96400, C96200Type 2, Type 3D-2, D-5B
ApplicationsWhere galling resistance is requiredWhere good resistance to chloride pitting corrosion and stress corrosion crackingSeawater applicationsWhere a combination of corrosion resistance and wear/erosion resistance is neededWhere a combination of toughness, corrosion resistance and wear/erosion resistance is needed; with certain alloy additons, these alloys also do well in higher temperature applications
LimitationsNon-weldableLower strength, prone to hot-shortnessLower mechanical propertiesNon-weldable, brittle alloyVery difficult to weld
Typical UsesRotorsDesalination applicationsmiltary pump/valve applicationsSlurry pumping applications, Cylinder liners, pistons, bearings, glandsSlurry pumping applications, Cylinder liners, pistons, bearings, glands
MachinabilityGoodFairGoodGoodFair to good
WeldabilityNon-weldableFair, special precautions are necessary along with post-weld heat treatmentGoodNon-weldableVery difficlut to weld and requires customer consent to weld
Corrosion ResistanceGoodVery goodGoodgood in mild acids/alkalies, sea water but fair less than stainless steelsgood in mild acids/alkalies, sea water but fair less than stainless steels
Hi Cr White IronCast IronTool SteelsFerritic
Representative AlloysHC250Ductile and GrayD2, A2CB30
ApplicationsWhere wear resistance (or high hardness) and minimal corrosion resistance is requiresGray Iron is low cost material with good wear, galling, and dampening properties. Ductile Iron is alow cost material with properties simliar to steelsWhere high hardness and rigidity are neededWhere some corrosion and/or oxidation resistance is required
LimitationsVery crack prone and non-weldableBoth: non-weldable Gray is a brittle materialNon-weldableLower ductility
Typical UsesWear componentsGray: cylinder liners, bearings Ductle: piping, automotive componentsTooling fixturesDecorative trim, Automotive-especially exhaust applications
MachinabilityFairGoodDifficult depending on the heat treat conditionGood
Corrosion ResistanceLow to fairNoneNoneGood